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The changing role of the assessor in apprenticeships



Changes to apprenticeships in England mean big changes to the assessor role. This article looks at some of the main ones and what these will mean in practice for you if you are a vocational assessor and are planning to teach or assess on the new apprenticeship routes:


1.     Apprenticeship standards are linked to roles not qualifications (although qualifications still form part of the gateway requirements on many apprenticeship routes). Assessors will use formative assessment during the on-programme element of the apprenticeship to enable apprentices to achieve gateway requirements and to prepare them for end-point assessment.


2.     You can't end-point assess the same learners you teach or coach. If you are freelance, you may be able to juggle contracts and cohorts, but others may need to make decisions about what their role will be and how to position themselves (see point 4). If you are employed, your training provider should already be making decisions about changes to staffing structures.


3.     You need to ensure that your own occupational competence and knowledge are up-to-date. This is to ensure you have the right skills and knowledge to remain credible to employers. Employers involved in apprenticeships are already taking the assessment function in-house. You may need to go back into industry to remain employable.


4.     Apprenticeships involve in-depth teaching and learning and robust, independent, end-point assessment. This means positioning yourself to be able to structure learning and to teach, to be able to assess apprentices at the end of their apprenticeships according to the apprenticeship standard and assessment plan relevant to the role, or both.


5.     There are hardly any exemplar materials yet that show what end-point assessment looks like in practice. These are being developed and rolled-out by approved assessment organisations (AAOs) as the standards and assessment plans are approved.


Here are some suggestions as to what you might do to prepare yourself as an end-point assessor and/or on-programme trainer:


·       Keep checking the government's website for the list of standards and assessment plans to see what's been approved in your occupational area. Click here to find out more.


·       Get involved in developing exemplar materials via your approved assessment organisation (in apprenticeships, this is likely to be an Awarding Organisation but it could also be a training provider).


·       Identify your own CPD needs and do something about them now. Don't leave it until the changes overtake you. Remember, you're a dual professional, so this will mean updating your occupational competence as well as your teaching and assessment practice. If you haven’t done so already, consider training as a teacher if you wish to become involved in the planning and delivery of the on-programme element.


·       Ask your training organisation how they are planning for the changes to staffing structures and delivery approaches. Ask too for help with any CPD and updating that will be needed. If they are planning to deliver apprenticeships and haven't yet started to make strategic decisions, ask yourself if they will still be in business when employers are choosing the training providers they want to work with.


·       Consider going directly to employers and offer your services, particularly if you operate within a specialist area and can assess at Level 4 or above. There are already shortages of skilled assessors in some areas (for example, STEM subjects). AAOs are trying to recruit assessors from industry but low rates of pay are making this unattractive.


This is not intended as a definitive list: we don't know enough yet about what apprenticeships will look like in practice and things may change. If you are involved in the delivery of new apprenticeships and have any points that you'd like to add, please let me know.




End-point assessment: Independent assessment at the end of the apprenticeship.


Gateway requirements: requirements that the apprentice must meet before going on to end-point assessment.


On-programme element: Teaching, learning and assessment provided by the training organisation to enable the apprentice to meet the gateway requirements and to prepare them for end-point assessment.


Apprenticeship standard: The knowledge, skills and behaviours agreed by employers that apprentices must meet.


Assessment plan: Details of end-point assessment: what it comprises; the assessment methods to be used; and how grading will be applied.


Approved Assessment Organisations: Organisations that have been approved to offer end-point assessment.


© Hilary Read, 2016


This article first appeared in FE News on March 31st, 2016


Hilary is running CPD events with Ann Gravells nationally. The event on apprenticeships looks at:


                the structure of apprenticeships and changes to terminology

                standards and assessment plans

                planning for the on-programme element

                changes to assessment practice.

 Please click on the 'Courses' button to find out more.


Employer engagement: The employer's perspective

This article looks at employer engagement from an employer network’s perspective and is taken from research I carried out when writing The best vocational trainer’s guide. It is based on the experience of a national network of hospices looking for SfA-funded providers who were willing to work in partnership on a variety of vocational programmes. Their Education Projects Manager circulated an expression of interest to colleges of FE nationally. Of the nineteen that got through the initial application process, four have since shown the flexibility needed to work in partnership with hospices.

Practical pointers are for employers and are based on the network’s experience and recommendations to other employers, the most important of which are to ensure the provider’s senior management team are on board and to ensure that the provider is ready to form a genuine, two-way partnership based on what both parties bring to the table. Many of the colleges were not open to working in partnership, interpreting what was needed as a straightforward subcontracting arrangement, which it wasn’t, as the following case study shows:

Employer case study

“One of the trickiest meetings we had was with the college’s contracts manager. She came with two of their standard working agreements. One of these was designed for delivery of the college’s existing services, and the other was for subcontractors. We were neither. When I explained that we wouldn’t be signing, it almost proved to be a deal-breaker. Luckily, we had already been working with the college curriculum team and the Principal was determined to make the relationship work. We agreed the college would draw up a new agreement to reflect the partnership, and that we wouldn’t be adapting our practice to fit the existing contracts.

I thought we’d agreed processes and documentation with the curriculum team but came into work one morning to find the assessor had asked our HR department to get learners to complete several lengthy sign-up documents, some of which were written with 16 – 19 year-olds in mind (our learners tend to be older). We were put under pressure to fill these in. It turned out the assessor hadn’t been briefed.  I phoned our contact at the college who immediately realised why the documents would not work. He agreed we should complete the two required to start the funding off and that he would re develop the others for our specific use.

Overall the relationship has worked because the college leadership has recognised the need to change the way in which things are done. They re-designed sign-up packs, bypassed their ‘usual’ procedures and have instigated a very flexible service-level agreement. This has cost them money in the initial year of working together, but they see it as an investment in the future – a loss leader.”                                                                                                Education Projects Manager

Practical pointers for employers

1. Consider forming a three-way learning partnership that meets the needs of all parties: learner, employer and training provider.

This means playing an active role and does not mean becoming a sub-contractor on behalf of the training provider to enable them to deliver their existing apprenticeship. Rather, it involves an individually negotiated partnership where time, resources and funds are allocated according to the agreement reached. For example, if you get involved in government-funded programmes such as apprenticeships, and take on some of the work the provider might normally do such as delivering training or learning, you would expect a proportion of the funding to come your way.

“We already offer training in our local communities. We are known for the training we offer and for our expertise. I was disappointed at the number of training providers who were too busy to get back to us or who didn’t ask us about the training we already offered.”                        Hospice Education Director

2. As the employer, you are the customer. A good training provider will offer to tailor the services they offer to meet your needs.

Be wary of those who offer existing ‘packages’ without including you or those who offer you ‘free’ training). This will mean negotiating and reaching an agreement with them. You will have options with regard to some or all of the following:

- who delivers the teaching and learning (if you already have in-house expertise and resources, then it should probably be you)

If there are qualifications involved:

- your preference for any awarding organisation (AO) used

- your choice of optional units within the qualifications being offered. You need to ensure that the provider is in a position to offer you the specialist areas of training and/or units that you need. This is where your in-house expertise comes in and you can choose who delivers what

- who assesses: including decisions about whether your staff will act as expert witnesses and/or assessors depending on their qualifications and expertise. This will have an impact on the assessment and quality assurance processes as well as yours and/or your staff’s time.

3. Open a dialogue.

Decide who is best placed to offer which parts of the teaching, learning support, assessment, resources (such as specialist equipment needed to deliver the training) and any administration involved (such as meeting awarding organisation requirements if there are vocational qualifications involved).

4. Decide how any funds and/or resources will be allocated.

If you provide training, resources and/or your staff’s time and expertise, then expect either a share in the funding available or alternatively ask for this to be taken as ‘work in kind’ instead of the employer’s contribution the provider might ask for. You will also need to know what the provider charges for, for example:

- training

- registration

- certification

- assessment

- quality assurance.

NB: Be prepared to contribute where your learners are aged 19+, as funding drops. Your contribution may be in kind, in which case, you will not be paid for your time or resources. As employers, the hospice network was able to secure funds from alternative sources.

5. Agree the procedures that must be in place to ensure all those involved are in regular communication, including learners.

If there are qualifications involved, ask to see examples of the documentation you and your learners would be expected to complete to meet Awarding Organisation or funding requirements. The training provider will advise you on what is needed, but expect them to customise procedures and paperwork to meet your needs and working practices as these are often generic and may not work for you.

Key questions for training providers: How ready are you?

Here are four key questions to ask yourself as a training provider concerning your readiness to engage with employers:

Ideally, you’d be aiming for a ‘yes’ in each case. Where you have answered ‘no’ you will need to consider an overall strategy concerning meeting employers’ needs and providing upskilling of staff, including any subcontractors.

1. Do we have commitment from our Chief Executive Officer/Principal to make changes to current processes, procedures and/or documentation to enable partnerships with employers to work?

2. Have we identified the services we are offering to employers and established that there is a demand for these?

3. Have we costed these services so that we know what to charge?

4. Have we changed our delivery approach from focussing on generic standards within vocational qualifications to one of delivering training and assessment with an emphasis on employers’ needs?


This article was first published for FENews on August 12th, 2015.


Gaining an assessor/IQA/EQA qualification

Becoming a vocational assessor or IQA is seen by many as a credible career path into teaching, training and quality assuring. It is hugely rewarding, if you can find the right path to gaining the qualification and the right experience to enable you to reach robust assessment decisions as an assessor, or improve assessment performance as an IQA.

In the past, it was the norm for vocational assessors to gain their qualification on the job, in-house under the mentorship of a more experienced assessor. This is still a main route for employees to become assessors. However, many new assessors now undertake their assessor and IQA/EQA qualifications away from their vocational specialism and sometimes on the back of minimum evidence requirements.

Here are some things to avoid:

    • Providers offering an A1 assessor qualification (the qualification no longer exists, although it's perfectly valid for an existing assessor to put it on their CV if they already have it).
    • Promises of employment (unless - of course - you are already in employment): recruiters look for freelance assessors with experience, so if you lack real assessment experience, don't be surprised if you find it difficult to break into the freelance market.
    • High income potential: if anything, rates of pay have been driven down with recent funding cuts.
    • A website with a premium telephone number and no 'real' people (this can sometimes be an indication of a broker who sub-contracts out the tutoring and/or assessment functions leading to long waits for support or feedback on work). Instead, look for testimonies from named customers, tutor names and profiles, and an indication of who the owners are. The best providers are often small and specialist providers who get referred through word of mouth. It's worth seeking them out.
    • E-learning models where you can't see or sample what you're getting when you sign up to the qualification. Sometimes these consist of little more than a list of written assignments, so ask to see what you will be learning. (If you suspect there isn't any learning, or the provider tells you they will provide you with the evidence you need to get the qualification, don't waste your money.)
    • Accelerated pathways to gaining the qualification. You may well gain the qualification, but you will not assimilate the knowledge required or be able to put it into practice with real candidates, assessing them under supervision over a period of time. Look instead, for a sensible period of time for you to learn and achieve (think very roughly in terms of the period it would take your potential candidates to achieve a vocational qualification of similar size with you as their assessor).
    • Up-front payment via a website if any of the above apply. The option of staged payments allows you some control if you don't get the service you were expecting.

As with all vocational qualifications, those learning how to become assessors and IQAs need to follow the learning journey just as their potential candidates do. In other words, following a model of teaching and learning that includes initial and diagnostic assessment, teaching and learning of background knowledge, on-job learning and work-shadowing of an experienced assessor or IQA, and reaching assessment decisions under the supervision of a more experienced assessor (or managing assessors' performance for a learner IQA). This should take place over a period of time according to the learner assessor or E/IQA's needs and summative assessment should only take place when the person is regularly performing to the assessor/IQA/EQA standards they are hoping to achieve.

    This article comes with thanks to my social media followers for their continued support and their many messages concerning assessment and I/EQA practice. Particular thanks go to those whose stories I have used here and for their permission to use them.

      This article first appeared as  Linkedin Pulse article on September 25th, 2015. 

      Life on the front line for workbased assessors and trainers (Linkedin Pulse article, July 2nd 2015)

      I started a discussion in the Linkedin NVQ/QCF assessors, IQAs and EQAs group that I manage earlier this year asking members what they get paid to do as assessors. This is a private group of nearly 5,000 assessors, IQAs, EQAs, vocational trainers and managers. The discussion generated interesting comments publicly, and many private messages.

      On the work-based routes, it's clear that some providers act as little more than recruitment brokers, subcontracting to other providers that in turn contract out the training, assessment and quality assurance functions. Group members have commented that the apprentice system is open to abuse from employers who claim apprenticeship funding for those already in a job. Others say they work for Centre Managers whose job is to ensure funding is triggered and to meet Awarding Organisation requirements but who possess little or no understanding of caseloads or the job of the assessor or IQA.

      Assessors in these circumstances are paid per portfolio and/or given a set number of visits and are expected to take responsibility for:

      • finding their own candidates
      • assessing individual needs (though this stage is often missed)
      • liaising with employers
      • providing training
      • assessing (formative and summative).

      This means it's the assessor who's under pressure to get the candidate through the framework. One message states:

      "The lead and sub-contractor expect me and my fellow assessors to do the training for the whole apprenticeship framework inclusive of Functional Skills, ERR, the Technical Certificate and QCF qualification for under £500. We are expected to pay for the training venue and resources from the £500. Learners do Levels 2 and 3. We are not paid travelling costs for learners outside our immediate area."

      One thing is clear: as funding has tightened, providers have passed on the squeeze to the lowest-paid: the assessor. Assessors report being badly-paid and feeling ill-equipped to deal with this responsibility. Their own experience of gaining their assessor qualification mirrors the kind of bad practice criticised by Richards and Cavendish below. They gain their assessor qualification based on minimum evidence requirements leading to lack of 'real' assessment experience. In addition, they may possess an entry-level teaching qualification - PTLLS or its new equivalent the Award in Education and Training - neither of which require observation of teaching practice and are often based on a 15-minute micro-teach.

      With the current emphasis on employer engagement and apprenticeships, how does this look to employers? Apprenticeships are undergoing reform but this won't be in place across all sectors until 2017. In the meantime, the assessor is often the only person seen by the employer who is baffled at what they see. 

      The Cavendish Review into Healthcare Assistants and support workers in the NHS and social care settings (July 2013) contains quotes from employers such as the following from a domiciliary care manager:

      “Assessors change all the time, there’s no continuity, they’re lowly paid and not properly valued themselves.” (Page 40)

      The Richard Review of Apprenticeships (2012) puts it like this:

      "Too much provision is driven by the need to tick off a very long list of competencies, required to complete the requisite qualifications. This has meant that, today, too many apprenticeships involve, in part if not it total, a heavy focus on on-going assessment – indeed many apprenticeships are delivered on the ground almost exclusively by individuals called assessors, rather than trainers, teachers or educators. Much of the time which apprentices spend ‘training’, is in fact spent with their assessor providing evidence of their ability to meet competency requirements. I believe apprenticeships should be about new learning, and those involved in delivering apprenticeships should focus on teaching and coaching – this should be their primary task, the thing they are paid to do." (Page 87).

      It is difficult to expect employers, parents or potential learners to value apprenticeships until practice is addressed. This will mean re-structuring of both staffing and pay if providers are to position themselves to provide what employers want and to stay in business. It will also mean up-skilling of all those involved to provide the in-depth teaching and learning demanded at Levels 3 and above.

      On the plus side, there are providers, assessors and IQAs who see it as their professional duty to provide joined-up teaching, learning and assessment and maintain good working relationships with employers. I would like to thank them personally for the examples of their practice on which I base all of the guides I write and publish.

      This article first appeared as a Linkedin Pulse article on July 2nd, 2015.



      What does good vocational teaching and learning look like?

      Making the most of the workplace:


      Hilary Read< is the author and publisher of ‘The best … ‘ series of guides aimed at vocational teachers, assessors and quality assurers and is a champion of work-based trainers, assessors and I/EQAs. She runs CPD and trainer training nationally within the lifelong learning sector. Her latest publication ‘The best initial assessment guide’ shows providers how to build a robust initial assessment system to retain and motivate learners.


      There have been several reports published recently that are critical of the current system of vocational training and its emphasis on qualifications’ delivery. With the introduction of reformed qualifications in Education and Training this September and the scrapping of regulation for FE teachers to have any qualification at all, this article takes a timely look at some of the basic requirements for teaching and supporting learners on vocational programmes, and gives help with what this looks like in practice.

      What the research tells us

      Current vocational programmes often emphasise summative assessment of outcomes to achieve qualifications, with little or no curriculum planning or teaching linked to the workplace. Research carried out by CAVTL (2013) into the strengths of adult vocational learning recommends reversing this emphasis:

      “We need to turn the current way of doing things on its head and return qualifications to being the kite-mark of a learning programme, rather than the definition of a curriculum. This means putting the focus back on curriculum and programme design, and the development and updating of occupational and pedagogical expertise …

      Together with a funding regime based on qualifications, this [emphasis on qualifications as the curriculum] has exacerbated a focus on ‘assessment as learning’ and qualifications.”

      The Cavendish Review (2013) is critical of the ‘tick-box’ approach to vocational training and assessment of healthcare assistants and care workers within the NHS. It describes how funding is used to ‘deliver’ qualifications and gives the following example of poor practice under the heading ‘Qualifications and tick sheets do not denote performance on the job’:

      “ … the way the market is funded can create incentives for trainers to sign off as many people as possible as quickly as possible. The Review has heard of small care homes being offered free training from providers which are supposed to ask the employers to co-fund, but which simply take government money and shorten the courses. It is a mystery why governments should have paid up for so long, with so few questions asked.”

      Similar criticisms can be leveled at other sectors, including the training of vocational teachers and assessors, respective ‘guardians’ of the curricula and standards within the vocational sectors for which they are responsible. The Cavendish Review found that this results in employers placing low value on vocational qualifications and recommends focusing on staff performance:

      “Given what the Review has heard about the low value of some vocational qualifications, it is correct to place the emphasis on staff performance, rather than qualifications.”

      The Richard Review of Apprenticeships (2013) is also critical of qualifications-driven approaches and describes the purpose of an apprenticeship in terms of ‘doing the job’:

      "Not the intricate detail of today's occupational standards or the micro-level prescription of today's vocational qualifications which drive a focus on continuous bureaucratic box-ticking and assessment and obscure the real task of an apprenticeship - to teach new knowledge and skills and demonstrate to future employers that an apprentice can do their job." 

      Towards effective vocational pedagogy

      The City and Guilds Centre for Skills Development’s (CSD) report How to teach vocational education (2012) argues that vocational education has ‘an overall goal of the development of working competence’. The report specifies six outcomes to this end, all of which require learners to apply what they learn both within both the real-life working context, and a specific vocational area:

      1. Routine expertise: mastery of everyday working procedures in the domain.

      2. Resourcefulness: having the knowledge and aptitude to stop and think effectively when required.

      3. Functional literacies: adequate mastery of literacy, numeracy and digital literacy.

      4. Craftsmanship: an attitude of pride and thoughtfulness towards the job.

      5. Business-like attitudes: understanding the economic and social sides of work.

      6. Wider skills for growth: having an inquisitive and resilient attitude towards constant improvement – the ‘independent learner’ (Page 9).

      The report underlines the need to take account of both the complexity of the workplace and the relevant learning domain when planning the curriculum:

      “ … as the working world grows more complex, the worker’s expertise must not only be relevant, but also current. Vocational learners must acquire skills that help them self-learn and develop outside the context of the classroom or workshop. This means a successful vocational pedagogy must include scope for flexibility and updates.   Successful outcomes manifest differently across the various types of vocational careers, so a learner who works with physical materials might be faced with slightly different requirements than one with a people-focused vocation.”

      The CAVTL report recommends a ‘clear line of sight to work’ for all vocational courses:

      “A clear line of sight to work is critical because vocational learners must be able to see why they are learning what they are learning, understand what the development of occupational expertise is all about, and experience the job in its context. The real work context should inform the practice of vocational teaching and learning for learners, teachers and trainers.”

      This is important in retaining and maintaining learner motivation: most learners choose the workplace as their main place of learning to enhance their skills or to gain paid employment via real-life experience.

      Practical strategies

      Planning and managing learning linked to the workplace setting is not the same as the classroom or the workshop: by its very nature, the workplace means that the teacher is not in control of the context, making it about planning for, and assessing the impossible. In addition, dual professionalism (occupational and pedagogical expertise) is necessary on the part of those responsible for planning, teaching and assessing.

      Here are some practical ways of planning and supporting vocational teaching and learning linked to the workplace:

      1. Plan the curriculum around the main tasks that the learner carries out on a day-to-day basis in the work place

      The qualification is not the curriculum – what happens in the workplace is. This means planning and managing learning around what the learner does, or hopes to do, in the job.

      2. Plan your QA systems at the same time as you plan the curriculum

      This means planning the processes by which you will monitor and assure the quality of learning and assessment at the same time as planning the curriculum, otherwise you will end up fire-fighting at the end of the vocational programme – particularly if you follow the tick-box approach to ‘delivery’ and find that learners aren’t performing to the standards in question or – worse – have left, because their learning has not been actively reviewed and managed as they go.

      3. Start with the practical, work activity and link this to underpinning knowledge (at lower levels) and/or theories (at higher levels)

      This is a further factor in maintaining learners’ motivation because most workplace learners have chosen this setting to get away from classroombased learning. Nevertheless, the need to understand the relevance of theory to what they do or hope to do by way of employment remains:

      “it is not a question of whether learning should be practical or theoretical, rather it is a more precise understanding of when, in predominantly hands-on, experiential approaches, theoretical constructs should be introduced. (CAVTL, Page 110.)”

      4. Actively manage the learning programme

      This is about being an advocate for learners and ensuring they get access to both the knowledge and experience they need including:     

      - engaging actively with employers to ensure the right experiences are provided

      - going back to the training provider to ensure that teaching is given in areas that have been identified through formative assessment, particularly if the work place setting doesn’t allow for this.

      - making skills visible to learners as they acquire them; teaching underpinning technical knowledge linked to the work tasks as they occur naturally

      - knowing how to apply employment legislation and appeals processes that underpin the workplace, and training and assessment respectively, so that appropriate action can be taken if all else fails.

      5. Adopt one-to-one approaches

      On-the-job and near-the -job contexts mean adopting individualised approaches if learners are to improve and go beyond what’s required to meet minimum evidence requirements stipulated in the assessment strategies associated with qualifications. One-to-one coaching, combined with reflecting on performance is one way to improve learners’ mastery of skills once they have acquired the basics.

      6. Involve the learner and learn from them

      The CAVTL report calls this a ‘two-way street’ but it basically means being open to learning from your learner and what they do at work; as well as you introducing new or alternative ways of doing things from your own professional practice – both of which make a necessity of the next point.

      7. Teach reflection on performance

      Teaching skills of reflection to learners and asking them to be self-critical is a good way of encouraging them to take responsibility for their own learning and performance whilst encouraging a culture of continual professional development (CPD). Similarly, asking learners for feedback on your performance as a trainer, coach or assessor allows you to model the skills involved.

      8. Challenge learners to continually improve – and allow time for this to happen

      The trouble with seeing qualifications as end points is that learners are not encouraged to go further. Deep knowledge and skills’ mastery mean continual challenge on the part of the teacher/trainer and the setting of further, specific objectives to encourage learners to improve and hone skills. Practice and experience of different contexts over time often go by the wayside if the programme stops with the qualification.

      9. Embed or contextualise generic skills: teach them by linking them to work tasks and practices

      Deepening knowledge and enhancing skills’ mastery and transfer means teaching associated generic skills. Examples are functional skills and Personal Learning and Thinking Skills (PLTS) within apprenticeships – often treated as bolt-ons or ‘mapped’ to the qualification without the learner (or employer) being aware of them. Communication and problem-solving on the job are valued by employers.

      High-order or ‘meta’ skills - such as those of meta-cognition - also need to be taught: practical projects requiring learners to evaluate approaches used within the workplace and to make appropriate links out to theory is one way.

      © Hilary Read, 2013.


      Cavendish, C., et al (2013), The Cavendish Review: An Independent Review into Healthcare Assistants and Support Workers in the NHS and social care settings.

      LSIS (2013) It’s about work … Excellent adult vocational teaching and learning: The Summary Report of the Commission on Adult Vocational Training and Learning (CAVTL).

      Lucas, B., et al, (2012) How to teach vocational education: A theory of vocational pedagogy. City & Guilds Centre for Skills Development (CSD).

      Read, H. (2012), The best quality assurer’s guide. Read On Publications Ltd.

      Richards, D., (2013), The Richard Review of Apprenticeships.

      You can download the research reports above at under ‘Resources’.

      Published article from the IfL's InTuition magazine, July 2012

      In this article for the Institute for Learning's (IfL's) InTuition and CPD Matters (July, 2012), Hilary puts forward some guiding principles for quality assurance in areas where updating and CPD are currently needed, using practical illustrations from 'The best quality assurer's guide' and 'The best assessor's guide'.

      You are welcome to download the full article by clicking on the link below.

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